09 Oct 2012

Regional background information

Northeast and Northcentral region
Map of Northeast and Northcentral China

Area covered: Northeast region covers Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning, and Northcentral region covers Hebei, Henan, Shandong, Shanxi, Beijing and Tianjin.


Main crops in the Regiona

Northeast China: Maize, rice and soybean are the main crops in Northeast China, with 29.3%, 13.8% and 47.5% of national planting area, accounting for 30.9%, 14.7% and 46.8% of national crop production. Planting area and production for one-season rice, maize and soybean in Heilongjiang ranks first among different provinces in China.

The maize and rice planting area has kept the trends of increasing since 2000, and soybean planting area increased in 2005, and keeps not change for 2010, while soybean planting area for Jilin and Liaoning declined after 2000.

Table 1 Acreage, average yields, and total production of main crops in Northeast China

ProvinceYear200020052010
Crop Areage

1000 ha

Production

10000 t

Yield

kg/ha

Areage

1000 ha

Production

10000 t

Yield

kg/ha

Areage

1000 ha

Production

10000 t

Yield

kg/ha

HeilongjiangMaize1,8017914,3902,2201,0434,6974,3682,3245,321
Rice1,6061,0426,4901,6501,1226,7962,7691,8446,659
Soybean2,8684501,5693,5486301,7743,5485851,649
JilinMaize2,1979934,5202,7751,8016,4893,0472,0046,578
Rice5853756,4096544737,2376745698,441
Soybean5391202,2325051302,579377872,298
LiaoningMaize1,4235513,8741,7931,1366,3352,0931,1515,497
Rice4903777,7015684177,3286784586,754
Soybean302481,593254381,515123342,763
Northcentral China: Wheat, maize and vegetables are the main crops in North Central China. In 2010, the planting area of wheat, maize and vegetables in North-central China is around 12.1, 10.5 and 4.9 million hectares, accounting for about 50%, 33.8% and 26.8% of national level, which produces 57.6%, 35.7% and 38.2% of national total wheat, maize and vegetable production. Henan, Shandong and Hebei are the first top three provinces in planting area and total production, and then followed by Shanxi, Tianjin and Beijing. In most cases, Shandong, Henan and Hebei achieved the maximum yield of maize, wheat and vegetables in the region, respectively. Crops yields in Tianjin and Beijing are higher than Shanxi, but with limited planting area.

The maize planting area has kept the trends of increasing since 2000, and wheat and vegetable planting area remains a slowly decreasing or stagnant except Henan.

Table 2 Acreage, average yields, and total production of main crops in Northcentral China

ProvinceYear
2000
2005
2010
CropAreage

1000 ha

Production

10000 t

Yield

kg/ha

Areage

1000 ha

Production

10000 t

Yield

kg/ha

Areage

1000 ha

Production

10000 t

Yield

kg/ha

HebeiWheat2,6791,2084,5092,3771,1504,8392,4201,2315,085
Maize2,4799954,0122,6771,1944,4593,0091,5095,015
Vegetables8664,45451,4261,1056,46858,5411,1397,07462,127
HenanWheat4,9222,2364,5434,9632,5785,1945,2803,0825,838
Maize2,2011,0754,8832,5081,2985,1752,9461,6355,549
Vegetables1,1893,98233,4831,5965,88036,8461,7046,62438,873
ShandongWheat3,7481,8604,9623,2791,8015,4923,5622,0595,780
Maize2,4141,4686,0792,7311,7356,3542,9551,9326,538
Vegetables1,7887,25740,5771,8488,60746,5821,7719,03150,998
ShanxiWheat8932152,4097212022,8067292323,188
Maize7943554,4701,1846165,2051,5497664,945
Vegetables24292038,01024590236,81322990939,790
TianjinWheat122604,88999474,793111534,814
Maize131413,125139735,274169935,490
Vegetables12853141,35613054341,8468541949,418
BeijingWheat122675,49753275,00962284,610
Maize136594,323120635,230150845,621
Vegetables10848945,3758942447,8436830344,860

Fertilizer consumption in the region:

The Northeast and North-central region occupies about 10% and 29% of national total NPK and compound fertilizer consumption, but it is not balanced across different provinces/cities. In North-central region, Henan and Shandong consume the first and second rank of the regional fertilizer production for both chemical and compound fertilizer, and then followed by Hebei, Shanxi,Tianjin and Beijing.

Table 2 Fertilizer consumption in Northeast and Northcentral Region (10000 t)

Year200020052010
ProvinceNP2O5K2OCompoundNP2O5K2OCompoundNP2O5K2OCompound
Heilongjiang52.428.710.530.057.533.817.74277.447.430.859.4
Jilin64.75.58.533.461.36.210.060.766.96.612.297.1
Liaoning66.711.18.323.764.011.49.634.968.311.412.248.1
Beijing10.51.00.46.17.81.20.65.27.00.90.75.2
Tianjin9.22.00.74.711.63.71.56.612.44.01.68.0
Hebei148.043.816.862.0155.248.624.375.4153.047.426.389.4
Shanxi42.219.85.119.841.119.06.928.838.718.98.138.7
Shandong198.657.836.8130.0189.857.544.9175.5165.051.446.5210.0
Henan205.797.236.779.9227.2106.150.8134.1239.4116.659.8212.9

Major Plant Nutrition Issues in the Region

Low nutrient use efficiency caused by poor nutrient management: about 1/3 of the national fertilizer has been applied to North-central region, which represents ¼ of the arable land for grain and vegetable production. Over and imbalanced fertilizer especially excessive N application and not balanced with P and K has been applied on wheat/maize double cropping system and greenhouse vegetables. A recent investigation from across 595 field experiment in North Central demonstrated that the farmers applied 230 kg N/ha, 96 kg P2O5/ha and 63 kg K2O/ha averagely, and about one third of farmers apply over 300 kg N/ha on winter wheat. This over and imbalanced fertilization has led to inefficient use of nutrients. The research results indicated that the average agronomic efficiency of N, P and K in North-central China is 9.5 kg/kg, 23.0 kg/kg and 7.6 kg/kg, respectively, and the corresponding recovery efficiency values are 35.2%, 17.8% and 23.7%, separately. Over fertilization with N, organic additions and insufficient supply of K used in the region, remains big issues for greenhouse vegetable system as well.

High environmental risk caused by bad nutrient management: Continuous winter wheat and summer maize cropping without balanced and efficient use of fertilizers, and over fertilization in vegetables has contributed to not only losses in yield and profit, but also to environmental problems such as groundwater nitrate-N contamination and eutrophication of rivers. A 1998 investigation of groundwater nitrate-N content in Shouguang County of Shandong province showed that 29% of 80 samples exceeded 45 mg NO3–1 L–1, and the percentage increased to 49% in 2001. Therefore, cooperation on optimized nutrient management practices is urgently needed to maximize crop yield and maintain soil fertility while minimizing environmental impacts.

Future Opportunities

IPNI, China Northeast and North Central Region, has developed research and educational programs on balanced fertilization following the 4RS Nutrient Stewardshio, the right source at the right rate, time and place, in collaboration with national institutes of agriculture of the region, universities, farmer's organizations, agronomists associations, and others. Most of this work is shown at this website and in other activities such as publications, presentations and training sessions, and field meetings.


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